Peru Rainforest Amazon Pachitea Llullapichis Panguana Species Diversity : Geologie Klima
The Amazon rain forest is the largest rain forest in the world. It covers approximately half of Peru and Brazil, large portions of
Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Bolivia and the Guyana states. The geographic setting of the Amazon creates watersheds that are not clearly definable everywhere due to the interconnection with other rivers. The source
streams of the Amazon fall through narrow ravines in the Andean Cordillera that cuts the Amazon off from the Pacific Ocean. These streams come from heights of up to 5000 meters. The northern and southern borders of
the Amazon river system are created by the ancient massif of the Guyana tectonic plate and the Brazilian mountainous region that narrows quite noticeably 1000 kilometers before flowing into the Atlantic.
An overwhelming number of tree species whose crowns make a ceiling 30 to 40 meters above the ground, tree giants that rise up far above
this ceiling, rising thin palm trees whose feathery fronds stretch out and the canopy, twisted, wound, with lichens, bromeliads and ferns full of liana and on the ground small prickly palms and fungi of all colors
are just a few of the characteristic features of the Amazonian rain forest.
The Amazon basin takes up not only a fifth of the South American continent with its 3.6 million square kilometers, but is also one of the
largest contiguous natural landscapes on earth. It is, with the exception of its limitation by the Andes, difficult to demarcate because the rain forest reaches beyond the edges of the basin. The Amazon can be
delineated into six large landscapes: the upper Amazonian lowland, lower Amazon, Amazonian coastland, the Ecuadorian-Colombian Andean foothills, the Brazilian-Peruvian Andean foothills and the Beni-Mamore lowland.
It is estimated that the Amazon River has 1100 tributaries. It is over 6000 kilometers long and is the largest river on earth,
transporting around 20% of the earth's fresh water. Its riverbed is so deep that sea-faring ships can sail 3700 kilometers upstream through nearly the entire continent into the Peruvian Iquitos. The forests of the
Amazon area represent around 30% of the forest area left on earth.